Have you ever wondered who invented the first mechanical calculator able to add, subtract, multiply and divide? Meet the **Pascaline** – conceived by 17th century French prodigy Blaise Pascal when he was just 18 years old!

This innovative gadget used interlocking toothed wheels and gears to "automatically" perform numeric calculations. Its groundbreaking design paved the way for modern computing technology.

Let‘s explore the history, inner workings, and impact of this radical calculating contraption. By the end, you‘ll appreciate how the Pascaline marked a pivotal advance in the mechanization of mathematics.

## Origin Story: Why Pascal Invented the Machine

Blaise Pascal was born in 1623. His father Etienne was a tax commissioner in Rouen, France, who spent long hours manually tallying figures to compute tax rates. The tedious math work was overwhelming.

At age 16, young Pascal set out to help by building an automatic calculation aid for his dad.

"Pascal had the intellect to realize that mathematical tables could be produced mechanically,"explains mathematician Ulf Hashagen.

After 50 different prototypes, Pascal unveiled the final "Pascaline calculator" in 1642. It could add, subtract, multiply and divide whole numbers automatically using a brilliant arrangement of gears and rotating wheels operated by hand.

**So what made the Pascaline so special? Let‘s look under the hood!**

## Key Components

- Sturdy
**rectangular brass box**about 35 x 13 x 9 cm in size - Up to
**8 numbered dials**on the face with spokes for digit entry **Pins**called "sautoirs" enabled carryover between positions**Windows**on hinged lid showed decimal place values**Stylus**for rotating the gear wheels to input numbers

Here‘s a breakdown of how each part worked in tandem:

The toothed **dials** had the digits 0 to 9 engraved around them, with little spokes in between you could catch on. Turning a dial would make it start clicking through the numbers until it hit a built-in mechanical stop.

Dial Features | |
---|---|

Diameter | About 5 cm |

Markings | Digits 0-9 on periphery |

Spokes | 10-20 per dial |

Motion | Unidirectional click stops |

The **sautoirs** ("jumping jacks") were little carryover gravity pins between positions. As a dial incremented from 9 to 0, its sauteur would trip and fall, causing the next dial to turn 1 digit higher. This propagated the carry left-to-right!

The lid contained **windows** to show the numbers entered on vertically stacked **cylinders** inside. Each cylinder had 2 complementary digits from 0-9 inscribed, so flipping a cover plate displayed upper or lower sets for + and – operations.

Finally, the handheld **stylus** let you turn input dials position-by-position to enter numbers for calculations.

## Performing Math Step-By-Step

Resetting all dials to 0 ensured proper alignment before computing. Then you could start entering numbers:

*Addition*

- Slide lid cover to show upper digits
- Turn dials clockwise to enter addend
- Enter next addend the same way
- Read total sum digit columns!

*Subtraction*

- Slide cover to lower complementary digits
- Enter minuend as 9‘s complement number
- Input subtrahend normally via dials
- Read difference value in windows!

The stylus let you repeat additive or subtractive dial rotations to do **Multiplication** and **Division** too!

While mechanical limitations meant the Pascaline couldn‘t include decimal points or negatives, its pioneering design enabled reliable chained calculation across columns.

## Why It Mattered – Legacy

The computing prowess Pascal packed into that box was astonishing for the 1600s. No prior calculating device came close to the Pascaline‘s efficiency and automation.

As mathematician Gottfried Leibniz remarked:

"The machine is extremely beautiful. It does the four operations marvellously without effort or error."

Pascal‘s calculator relied on precision parts and skilled craftsmanship though, making commercial production costs prohibitive. Only 50 working models were built in his lifetime.

But the mechanical calculating concept caught on! Pascal‘s "AutoMata" became famous throughout Europe‘s scholarly circles. Queen Christina of Sweden and Marie Louise Gonzaga of Poland were among royals who commissioned personal versions.

The Pascaline‘s groundbreaking "stored program" mechanism and carry system set important foundations. It pioneered modern computing‘s integrated components for automated data input, memory, processing, and output.

Later inventors adapted Pascal‘s design advances into various 18th and 19th century arithmetic engines and difference machines. So while this historical oddball device never saw mass adoption, it unlocked a tidal wave of mechanical calculation innovation to come!

So next time you whip out a pocket calculator or smartphone math app, take a moment to appreciate Blaise Pascal‘s 350-year-old engineering marvel!