The Millionaire Calculator Machine, introduced in 1895 by the Hans Egli company of Zurich, Switzerland, pioneered swift and precise direct mechanical multiplication. In an era when complex mathematics was largely done by hand, this chrome-plated calculation dynamo delivered speed and convenience while setting the stage for future computing innovations.

## Overview: Groundbreaking Gear-Driven Calculator

Prior to electronic devices, multiplication was typically performed through repeated addition on simple mechanical adding machines – a tedious process prone to human error.

Engineer Otto Steiger‘s breakthrough concept replaced manual duplication of effort with an ingenious mechanical analogy to how people multiply on paper. His Millionaire Calculator Machine consulted an internal multiplication table and returned partial products to be summed in an accumulator register.

The Millionaire Mechanism demo video provides an overview of the key components in action:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQw4w9WgXcQ

With its gears and levers mimicking the logic of manual calculation, the Millionaire Calculator enabled orders-of-magnitude efficiency gains. While adding machines moved one digit at a time, the Millionaire delivered a complete multiplication product with just a single turn of its crank per digit.

||Adding Machine | Millionaire Calculator|

|-|-|-|

|Operation|Repetitive Addition|Direct Multiplication

|Multiplication Speed|~15 seconds for 8-digit numbers|**~7 seconds** for 8-digit numbers|

|Accuracy|Prone to human error|Precise mechanical results|

The Millionaire Calculator‘s swift mechanical multiplication was a revelation for technical and financial enterprises.

## Internal Machinery – A Mechanical Analogue Brain

The Millionaire Calculator’s massively heavy chassis enclosed a clever arrangement of pinion gears, racks, shafts, and accumulator wheels. Numbers were entered using slider controls on racks located on the left side of early versions. Later editions added a numeric keypad for faster input.

The operator entered the first multiplier digit and rotated the crank. This engaged a drive shaft mechanism that:

- Consulted the internal multiplication table for the partial product
- Turned a horizontal rack to align the corresponding output gear teeth
- Rotated the accumulator wheels to add the product
- Shifted the carriage one position left

This video demonstrates the Millionaire‘s ingenious inner workings:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xvFZjo5PgG0

Two partial product cycles occurred per crank rotation – one for the tens digit and one for the units digit – mimicking how people process multiplication problems in steps.

So multiplying 7 x 6 yielded the following mechanical sequence:

- First partial cycle: 7 x 6 tens position → Product of 4 tens
- Accumulator register rotates 4 positions to the left
- Second partial cycle: 7 x 6 units position → Product of 2 units
- Accumulator adds 2 units result

After 6 crank rotations for the 6-digit multiplier, the accumulator display would thus read the complete product of 42.

## Historical Impact: Pioneering Commercial Success

While inventor Otto Steiger patented the initial concept in 1892, Zurich-based Hans Egli & Company handled commercialization when they acquired licensing rights in 1895.

The Egli firm shepherded enhancements like the addition of a numeric keypad before launching full-scale production between 1895-1935. Approximately 5,000 Millionaire Calculator units were manufactured in this period.

Priced from $475 to $1100 (equivalent to $15,000-$35,000 today), the Millionaire Calculator was an expensive but prized possession. Early adopters included scientific and engineering teams who relied on rapid, precise multiplication in their technical work.

The Swiss government was also an early repeat customer, purchasing units to accelerate financial computations. By the 1900s, usage had expanded into fields like banking, insurance, and accounting.

The Millionaire Calculator enjoyed wide popularity through the early 1900s as the first commercially successful mechanical multiplication calculator. Its use persisted through the 1930s even as new electrical computing machines emerged – a testament to its reliable mechanical ingenuity.

## Legacy: Building Block for Future Computing

While Millionaire production halted in 1935 with the advent of rotary dial electrical calculators, its legacy lived on. The Millionaire Calculator popularized direct mechanical multiplication and freed humans from the most laborious mathematical tasks.

By mechanizing the behind-the-scenes grunt work involved in complex math, the Millionaire paved the path for a succession of ever-more sophisticated calculating aids. Its merger of insightful machine engineering with the strengths of human operators set the stage for the automated computing machines we now rely on daily.

So while its bulky frames and hand-cranked arithmetic seem quaint in today‘s computing age, the pioneering Millionaire Calculator wrote an early chapter in the evolution of automated computation.

Next time your phone‘s calculator app sums a restaurant check in nanoseconds, think of ingenious ancestors like the Millionaire – products of relentless human drive to invent aids for unleashing our higher cognitive potential. The story of breakthrough inventions like the Millionaire Calculator Machine move us forward as both thinkers and makers.